Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in soils from wastewater irrigation areas in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China
Antibiotic resistance genes, Antibiotics, Pearl River Delta, Soil; Wastewater
The occurrence and distribution of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), and the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in six agricultural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China. Irrigation water and irrigated soils at two different depths (0-10 and 10-20cm) were analyzed. The total concentrations of TC and SMZ in irrigation water ranged from 69.3 to 234ng/L and from 4.00 to 58.2ng/L, respectively, while the total concentrations of TC and SMZ in irrigated soils ranged from 5.00 to 21.9μg/kg and from 1.30 to 4.20μg/kg, respectively. After long-term irrigation with domestic and fishpond wastewater in the field, the residual TC and SMZ and their corresponding ARGs in soils were significantly higher in fishpond-irrigated soils (Dongguan and Shenzhen) than in domestic wastewater-irrigated soils (Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou and Zhongshan). The concentrations of antibiotics and their ARGs were significantly higher in irrigation water than in irrigated soils, which indicated that wastewater was the primary source of antibiotics in the soil environments. The domestic and fishpond wastewater were important repositories of antibiotics and their ARGs, which require effective treatment before their discharge into the environment. Other factors such as soil physicochemical properties, manure application, irrigation water sources and cropping patterns also affect the antibiotic concentrations and ARG abundances. The residual antibiotic concentrations statistically correlated with the corresponding ARGs in irrigation water and irrigated soils, both of which decreased with increasing soil depth, indicating that the concentration of antibiotics in the environment exerted a selection pressure on the microorganisms in the environment.
Science of The Total Environment
Pan, G. Z.,& Chu, L. (2018). Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in soils from wastewater irrigation areas in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China. Science of The Total Environment, 624, 145-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.008