Design and installation of post-installed reinforcements: A state-of-the-art review

Daniel T. W. Looi, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak
Yuen Fai, Augustus Lee, Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Morrison Hill), Vocational Training Council
Ray K. L. Su, The University of Hong Kong
Yanlong Zhang, The University of Hong Kong


Post-installed reinforcement (PIR) helps facilitate retrofitting works, mitigate misplaced reinforcement problems, as well as support newly cast concrete members such as modular integrated construction. However, it has not been holistically addressed in major international reinforced concrete (RC) design codes. Nonetheless, based on established design philosophy and associated failure modes, the cast-in reinforcement design method in RC can be extended to design qualified PIR systems. The qualification of PIR system can be referenced to AC 308 (2016), European Assessment Document (EAD) 330087 (2018) and EAD 330499 (2017) in the US and Europe, respectively. In Hong Kong, PIR is conservatively limited to shear connections. Its assumption of pinned connection is less justifiable for some deep sections of beams, which may induce hogging moments, causing tension at the top reinforcement of the supports. In some cases of cantilever slabs, moment connections are necessary to maintain equilibrium. Hence, this paper reviews an up-to-date design methodology and installation guide to complement the Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (HKBD) by referring to the recently published international design codes and documents. The proposal is useful to promote economical, sustainable and technically sound use of PIR system.