Influence of placement method on the cone penetration resistance of hydraulically placed sand-fills
The reclamation for the new airport at Chek Lap Kok in Hong Kong included the placement of a substantial volume of sand fill by various hydraulic placement techniques, which resulted in a wide range of as-placed densities of the sand fill. This paper described the use of cone penetration tests (CPT) on the evaluation of the possible ranges of density achievable by various hydraulic placement methods adopted in the construction of the new airport. The results of the CPT indicated that the placement technique is one of the most important factors in controlling the as-placed density of hydraulically placed sand fill. There is a marked contrast in cone tip resistance (and the associated relative density) profiles for the sand fills formed by subaerial and subaqueous placement methods, in which the cone tip resistance of the sand fill formed by subaerial placement is substantially higher than that of the sand fill formed by subaequeous placement. The results confirm that dense sand fill cannot be formed by subaqueous placement methods. The weakest zone is generally located just beneath the water level where fill is placed by subaqueous discharge.Key words: sand, hydraulic fill, cone penetration test, calibration chamber test, in situ density.
Canadian Geotechnical Journal
Lee, K. (2001). Influence of placement method on the cone penetration resistance of hydraulically placed sand-fills. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38 (3), 592-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t01-012