Simulation of engine faults and their impact on emissions and vehicle performance for a liquefied petroleum gas taxi

Document Type

Journal Article

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Emissions, Fault simulation, High emitting vehicles, Inspection and maintenance, Training programmes




© 2020 Elsevier B.V. The deterioration of emissions control systems in a spark ignition engine is predominantly a gradual process of wear and tear occurring as vehicles accumulate mileage. As new innovations in engine and emissions technology have been progressively introduced to meet lower emissions targets, the impact of gradual deterioration of hardware has become more challenging to identify and quantify in the repair industry. When a pioneering emissions control programme utilising remote sensing to detect high emitting gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles was to be introduced in Hong Kong, it became apparent the repair industry needed specialised training to assist with identifying the types of failures which would lead to high vehicle emissions. To identify the impact of hardware deterioration and failures, a Toyota Crown Comfort LPG taxi was used to demonstrate simulated failures of engine hardware systems to measure their impact on emissions, fuel consumption and drivability using a chassis dynamometer. This novel study simulated a broad range of deterioration and failures covering the intake, fuel supply, ignition, and exhaust systems. The results of the study showed significant THC and CO increases of up to 317% (0.604 g/km) and 782% (5.351 g/km) respectively for a simulated oxygen sensor high voltage fault and a sticky mixture control valve. The largest increase in NOx emissions was for restricted main fuel supply in the LPG vapouriser, producing an increase of 282% (1.41 g/km). Fuel consumption varied with increases of up to 15.5%. Drivability was impacted with poor idle from a number of faults and especially by a worn throttlebody which produced rough acceleration characteristics as well. This study clearly highlights the importance of having properly maintained emissions and engine hardware systems to achieve optimal fuel economy and compliant emissions levels, which could be reproduced in other regions for prescribed emissions regulation.

Source Publication

Science of the Total Environment

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