Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Special Olympics, intellectual disabilities, inclusion, sand-shoeing


One of the sports for the Special Olympics is snow-shoeing. In Hong Kong training for this sport occurs in the sand and is called sand-shoeing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a sandshoeing training program (STP) of the Special Olympics Hong Kong (SOHK). Two hundreds and thirty-two Grade 1 to 12 special school students with intellectual disabilities (ID), and 66 university students without ID participated in the STP. Three different types of survey were designed for students with ID, university students, and special school teachers. Descriptive data from the feedback of these three parties on the STP were analyzed. Results from 134 students with ID showed that 97.8% of them enjoyed taking part in the STP with the university students. Results also indicated that the special school teachers strongly agreed that the STP helped their students to learn the basic skills required for sand-shoeing (68.42%), enhanced students' social ability (73.68%), and building a healthy lifestyle (73.68%). A total of 78.4% of the university students expressed that they learned the skills on better communication with individuals with ID in this program. In conclusion, the STP demonstrated a successful example of inclusive sport program for the HKSO to further promote unified sports.

Source Publication

Journal of Research

Volume Number


Issue Number




First Page


Last Page