Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Anchorage, Bonded Anchor Design Method, Post-installed Reinforcement, Strut-and-tie Model, Moment Connections




Post-installed reinforcement (PIR) bars helps to facilitate retrofitting works, mitigate misplaced reinforcement problems, as well as support newly casted additions. However, the use of PIR has not been addressed in the major reinforced concrete (RC) design codes worldwide. Recently, the European standards have introduced a beneficial coefficient of moments in EN 1992-4 2018 for concrete fastenings which allows compliant PIR systems to be designed by using the bonded anchor (BA) design method. However, when applying this method to wall-slab connection design, the moment resisting capacity is often limited by the lack of bar spacing and small concrete covers. This means that the method neglects long embedment depths and the connections designed based on this method are prone to brittle failure. In this paper, the strut and tie model (STM), which can better describe PIR with long embedment depths, together with the fundamental reinforced concrete (RC) theory is used to improve the ductility of moment connections with PIR bars. An experimental study is conducted to explore the structural behaviour of applying PIR bars that connect the wall and slab. Validations on the proposed STM and supplement to the BA design methods are made. From the experimental findings, measures are then proposed to enhance the ductility of the moment connections.

Source Publication

Journal of Engineering Structures

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