再生水无计划间接补充饮用水的雌激素健康风险 Health risk induced by estrogens during unplanned indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater
再生水, 无计划间接补充饮用水, 雌激素, 健康风险评价, 非致癌风险, 水源, Reclaimed water, Recharge potable water unplannedly and indirectly, Estrogens, Health risk assessment, Non-carcinogenic risk, Water source
以城市污水为水源的再生水中含有一定量的雌激素类内分泌干扰物，其在无计划间接补充饮用水过程中存在潜在健康风险。针对再生水经河流补给湖库型水源地的典型场景，研究了再生水中雌酮、雌二醇、17α-乙炔基雌二醇、双酚A、壬基酚和辛基酚在水体中的变化规律，评价了雌激素的健康风险。结果表明，再生水(二级出水)中雌激素类物质的质量浓度多分布在0.1~100 ng·L-1水平；双酚A和壬基酚的浓度较高，可达到1~10μg·L-1水平。再生水间接补充饮用水过程中，雌激素的浓度受到上游来水稀释、河道湖库自然降解和饮用水处理工艺去除等作用的影响。雌酮、雌二醇、双酚A、壬基酚和辛基酚的非致癌风险较小，都低于规定值1。当湖库型水源地的水力停留时间大于30 d时，再生水中17α-乙炔基雌二醇对人体的非致癌风险值大多小于1；当停留时间小于10 d且再生水占饮用水比例达50%以上时，16%~47%样品的17α-乙炔基雌二醇的非致癌风险值大于1，其健康风险需优先关注。
The estrogenic endocrine disruptors in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater may induce health risks to human being, when reclaimed water is used for augmentation of drinking water unplannedly and indirectly. This study investigated changes in concentrations of estrone, estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol in reclaimed water during the reuse of reclaimed water for augmentation to water source such as lakes and reservoir via river. Thereafter, health risk induced by estrogens during the resue of reclaimed water was evaluated. The concentration of estrogen in secondary effluent ranged 0.1-100 ng x L(-1). The highest concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol reached up to 1-10 microg x L(-1). During the indirect reuse of reclaimed water as potable water, the dilution and degradation in river and lake, and the removal by drinking water treatment process could change the concentrations of estrogen. The non-carcinogenic risks of estrone, estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol were lower than 1. When the hydraulic retention time of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in lakes and reservoir was higher than 30 days, the non-carcinogenic risk of EE2 was lower than 1 in most cases. When the hydraulic retention time of EE2 in lakes and reservoir was less than 30 days and the percentages of reclaimed water in drinking water were higher than 50%, the non-carcinogenic risk induced by EE2 was higher than 1 in 20%-50% samples. This indicated that the risks of EE2 should be concerned.
Wu, Q.,Shao, Y.,Wang, C.,Sun, Y.,& Hu, H. (2014). 再生水无计划间接补充饮用水的雌激素健康风险 Health risk induced by estrogens during unplanned indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater. 环境科学Environmental Science, 35 (3), 249-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.2014.03.032