Removal of aqueous fullerene nC60 from wastewater by alum-enhanced primary treatment

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Journal Article

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Alum, CEPT, Coagulation-flocculation, Nanomaterial, Wastewater treatment




This study examined the removal of nC60 from wastewater by alum-enhanced primary treatment at different pH levels and alum dosages and identified wastewater characteristics affecting the removal. The efficiency of the removal depended on the alum dosage, pH, alkalinity, and the concentrations of suspended solids, sewage organic matter and salinity. Alum dosage and pH influenced the removal efficiency by changing the hydrolyzed aluminum species distribution at acidic and near neutral pH levels. At pH 9-10, nC60 removal was associated with the formation of magnesium (or calcium) carbonate or hydroxide precipitates. Alkalinity dramatically enhanced the nC60 removal efficiency (by up to 71%) through the formation of sodium aluminum hydroxycarbonate precipitates. Increasing the concentration of suspended solids enhanced the nC60 removal efficiency by up to 46% at 25 mg/L of alum as the solids act as adsorbents and the nuclei around which flocs can grow. Increasing the concentration of sewage organic matter decreased the nC 60 removal efficiency (by 17% or less) while salinity improved it, albeit only slightly so. The results of this study demonstrate that nC 60 can be effectively removed from wastewater by the alum-based chemically enhanced primary treatment process under appropriate conditions and better removal can be achieved by increasing alum dosage.

Source Publication

Separation and Purification Technology

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